Wisdom teeth correspond to permanent teeth called third molars; also, they are commonly called “cordales.”
The name of wisdom teeth is attributed to them, because they have been linked to the age of majority and the intellectual maturity of the patients. These teeth erupt around 17 and 25 years of age, and can even do it totally, partially or not.
The cords or wisdom teeth are four pieces in total, two in the upper jaw and two in the jaw, one right and one left respectively. They are located behind, in the last position of the denture line, that is, at the bottom of the mouth, which makes hygiene difficult.
The presence of the strings is associated with a series of problems, which are solved by extracting said pieces. The problems are summarized in:
- Pain, swelling, trismus (mandibular immobility) and general malaise.
- Dental caries in these molars and adjacent teeth due to the difficulty and complexity to perform a correct brushing in those areas.
- Periodontal disease, with inflammation, redness and bleeding of the gums associated with these teeth.
- Infections located by accumulation of food debris and dental plaque.
- Lost in dental alignment; The third molars to erupt can put pressure on the rest of the denture causing bite problems, broken teeth, crowding in the anterior area, among other problems. For this reason, the extraction of the third molars is suggested before performing an orthodontic treatment or just after completing it.
- Traumatic injuries to the inner surface of the cheeks or cheeks and the posterior edges of the tongue.
- Formation of cysts or tumors; Several authors suggest that the epithelial tissue that surrounds these molars can be potentially oncological, which could generate cysts and tumors, remember that the cords are often retained, impacted or included in bone tissue (bone).
- Malfunction and pain in the temporomandibular joint (articulation of the jaw with the skull), located in front of the ear.
- There are theories that indicate that the absence of strings in patients is a sign of greater evolution; as the human diet changed, shorter jaws developed. Currently, in the world population there are people who do not possess the dental germ of the third molars.
Also, there are patients who have enough space in the jaws to house the third molars without generating adverse effects for the denture; In these cases, the treatment consists of a periodic control or supervision by the professional.
After a detailed medical history, radiographic exams (panoramic) and a correct diagnosis is planned and determines the treatment to follow. In most cases, the indicated procedure is dental extraction (exodontics), which can be performed by a general dentist. However, in complex cases or when it is thought that there may be a complication, it is preferable to refer the patient with an oral or maxillofacial surgeon.
Interesting facts related to the ropes:
- They can cause pain, to which no explanation is found.
- On certain occasions, the cords may make it difficult or impossible to place dentures.
- They can generate occlusal interference or bad bite.
- In 70% of cases, injuries or trauma to the cheeks (internal portion) are perceived.
- About 40% of adults (45 years) develop periodontal disease, infections or tooth decay in the area near the third molar.
- Approximately 25% of adults who keep the strings in their youth, then must extract them thus increasing the risks and complications by 30%, if compared with their extraction in adolescence.
Author: Dr. Alejandro Amaíz